Chemisty Research Journal

A Peer Review International Journal

Physico-chemical and Fatty Acid Composition of Oil Extracted by Acetone Solvent from Alligator Pepper (Aframomum Melegueta)

Abstract To achieve a suitable concentration of the active ingredients contained in the plant or seed samples and that their action can be more effective, it is necessary to perform several  procedures through which the active ingredients are extracted with the appropriate solvents, These are selected according to the solubility and stability of the beneficial substances. The acetone (a polar solvent) extracting method by soaking where adopted for the extraction of oil from alligator pepper seeds (Aframomum Melegueta) for adequate extraction. Since the water content easily soluble in acetone after decantation, a freeze drying method at -20 ℃ and vacuum pressure of 1.034 mBar was used to remove both the acetone and the water content. This prevented the effect of heat during drying on the essential oil present in the oil extracted from the sample. This method leaved the oil in its natural state for its Physico-chemical and fatty acid composition. The values obtained for the chemical composition were. Acid value (mg/KOH/g) 34.22±0.2, Iodine Value (wijs) 29.44±0.2, Saponification Value (Mg/KoH/g) 145.86±0.3 and Peroxide Value (mg/kg) 30.90±0.2 respectively, 1.4605±0.1 and  0.9034±0.1 were the values obtained for the physical parameters (Refractive Index and Specific gravity)respectively. The fatty acid Composition obtained were Palmitic Acid(16:0) 17.269, Palmitoleic Acid(16:1)0.156, Margaric Acid(17:0)0.083, Stearic Acid(18:0)2.791, Oleic Acid(18:1)64.944, Linoleic Acid(18:2)13.885, Linolenic Acid(18:3)0.320, Arachidic Acid(20:0)0.351 and Behenic Acid(22:0)0.200 respectively. This result indicated that the values obtained were within the range of convectional oils consumed and good industrially because the level of the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil sample.

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