Chemisty Research Journal

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Assessment of Antimicrobial, Phytochemical Screening and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrophotometric Profile of Crude Chrysophyllum Albidum Essential Oil

Abstract The main purpose of this research work is to investigate and compare the antimicrobial properties of Chrysophyllum albidum seed and stem bark essential oils, against some selected pathogenic isolates, to compare the phytochemical composition of the oil of Chrysophyllum albidum seeds and stem bark, to analyze the chemical compounds responsible for activities of the essential oil using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) method in order to provide scientific validation for their use and as potential source of drug development. Phytochemical profile of air-dried Chrysophyllum albidum seed and stem bark essential oils shows that it contains an array of biologically active substances that include alkaloids, steroids, tannin, phenol, reducing sugar and flavonoid. However, Chrysophyllum albidum seed contains cardiac glycosides and saponin which are absent in the stem bark. Antimicrobial activity was determined using agar well diffusion method. The seed part reveals comparatively great antimicrobial activity against the test organisms (bacteria and fungi) used in the study. Salmonella typhi was the most susceptible bacterial isolate with 29mm zone of inhibition at 100mg/ml, 18mm at 50mg/ml and 13mm at 25mg/ml, while Trichophyton rubrum was the most susceptible fungi isolate with 18mm and 13mm at 100mg/ml and 50mg/ml respectively. Further study on the essential oil of the Chrysophyllum albidum seed using the Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometer reveals fifteen bio actives chemical compounds which invariably are the most volatile of the thousands of compounds that might be present in the essential oil. The compounds are said to possess antimicrobial activity, their various heights (%) includes; hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (2.02), Pentadecanoic acid (11.77), Cycloheptan(a)indole (1.13) , Methyl 10-trans,12-cis-octadecenoate (4.99),9-Octadecanoic acid (z)-,methyl ester (7.07), 6-Octadecanoic acid,(z)- (47.81), octadecanoic acid (14.94), 2,2,3-Trimethyl-2-3-methyl-buta 1,3-dienyl (0.91), Squalene (3.35), Chondrillasterol (0.45), 7,22- Ergostadienone (1.51), 17-(1,5- Dimethyl-3-phenylthiohex-4-enyl)-4 (0.54), Beta.-Amyrin (0.49), Lup-20(29)-en-3-ol, acetate, (3-beta) (0.77) and Phthalic acid, di(2-propylpentyl) ester (2.26). The results of this research justify the use of Chrysophyllum albidum for traditional medicine and further research on this plant parts is encouraged.

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