Chemisty Research Journal

A Peer Review International Journal

Optimization of Graham Glass Condensing Models for Extraction of Natural dye and Rate of Solvent Recovery Process

Abstract This study was undertaken with a view to investigate the effects of the number of bulbs on performance of A Graham outer jacket glass condensers. AutoCAD was used to design  Graham condensers varying the number of bulbs from one to ten (1-10) on the outer jacket; while maintaining the following specifications, outer bulbs size of θ48mm, distance from bulb to bulb 18mm,inner tube length θ 9/679mm with coil, outer tube length θ 40/720, bulbs and tubes θ 26/60mm,outlets and inlets θ 9/1.5mm and the length of quick fit 84mm.Ten (10) pieces of each type “As” and “Bs” of this modified structures of Graham condensing models were fabricated. For type “As” Graham condensers, the outlets and inlet tubes were joined to their jackets while for the type “Bs”, Graham models, the outlet tubes and the inlet tubes were joined directly to their inner tubes. The performance of these condensers were evaluated using industrial grade acetone (CH3COCH3) for extraction of natural dye from Lawsonia inermis (lallebature) plant leaves, recovery of solvent  and simple distillation of borehole. Results of extraction obtained shows that the highest yield was observed in condensing models with 7 bulbs in both types “As” Graham with 43.49% and type “Bs” model with 41.36% yield on extraction. The highest volume of solvent recovery was of the Graham models, with 2 bulbs on the outer jacket for both types “As” and “Bs”.255mls and 234mls by volume respectively. Condensing models with 3 bulbs of Graham condenser type “As” produced the highest volume of 270mls followed by model with 9 bulbs with total distillate of 260mls then, the type “Bs” model with 10 bulbs produced the highest distillates of 283mls followed by condensing model with 3 bulbs 264mls, these distillates were collected for a period of 1 hour at intervals of 5mins each. Statistical analysis using ANOVA indicated that increase in the number of bulbs on the outer jacket glass condensers have significant effects on the overall performances on extraction processes while increase on the number of bulbs have no significant effects on the overall performance in terms of  solvent recovery and simple distillation. This analogy helps in determining which kind of models to be used in performing experiments for optimum yield and minimize materials used for fabrications.

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