The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of glutathione in cytoprotection, xenobiotics metabolism and conjugation of reactive metabolites as well as its role in Protein s- glutathionylation induced by reactive oxygen and nitrosative species. We reviewed published literatures addressing the xenobiotics detoxification, involvement of methylglyoxal in glycation and cellular damage as well as role of protein s-glutathionylation in oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen and nitrosative stress. Glutathione plays critical role in xenobiotics detoxification. It also plays a role in conjugation of toxic metabolites generated in the cell during phase I reactions. It participates in glyoxylase system, protein regulation and expression of gene through disulfide exchange reactions, metabolism of estrogens, prostaglandins and leukotrienes, maturation of iron-sulfur clusters of diverse proteins and operation of certain transcription factors. Glutathione plays indispensable role in cytoprotection, detoxification, protein protection and redox-signalling. It role is well noted in conjugation of highly reactive metabolites. Excess advanced glycation end products have been linked to the development of diabetes and methylgyoxal levels were found to be high in the cerebrospinal fluid of diabetic patients. Recently, Protein S-glutathionylation is appearing as a critical signaling mechanism in cardiovascular diseases.
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